Spatial Intelligence and Spatial reasoning relate
to vision and spatial judgment.
Those with strong visual-spatial intelligence are typically very
good at visualizing and mentally manipulating objects.
They have a strong visual memory and are often artistically inclined.
Those with visual-spatial intelligence also generally have a very
good sense of direction and may also have very good hand-eye coordination,
although this is normally seen as a characteristic of the bodily-kinesthetic
Some critics point out the high correlation between the spatial
and mathematical abilities, which seems to disprove the clear separation
of the intelligences as Gardner theorizes.
Since solving a mathematical problem involves visually manipulating
symbols such as numbers, spatial intelligence is involved. A thorough
understanding of the two intelligences precludes this criticism,
however, as the two intelligences do not precisely conform to the
definitions of visual and mathematical abilities.
Although they may share certain characteristics, they are easily
distinguished by several factors, and there are many with strong
logical-mathematical intelligence and weak visual-spatial, and vice
Careers which suit those with this intelligence include artists,
engineers, and architects.
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